EPEDEMIOLOGY

Death rate from malignant cancer per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.[90]
no data ≤ 55 55-80 80-105 105-130 130-155 155-180 180-205 205-230 230-255 255-280 280-305 ≥ 305

As of 2004, worldwide cancer caused 13% of all deaths (7.4 million). The leading causes were: lung cancer (1.3 million deaths/year), stomach cancer (803,000 deaths), colorectal cancer (639,000 deaths), liver cancer (610,000 deaths), and breast cancer (519,000 deaths).[91] Greater than 30% of cancer is preventable via avoiding risk factors including: tobacco, overweight or obesity, low fruit and vegetable intake, physical inactivity, alcohol, sexually transmitted infections, and air pollution.[37]

In the United States, cancer is responsible for 25% of all deaths with 30% of these from lung cancer. The most commonly occurring cancer in men is prostate cancer (about 25% of new cases) and in women is breast cancer (also about 25%). Cancer can occur in children and adolescents, but it is uncommon (about 150 cases per million in the U.S.), with leukemia the most common.[92] In the first year of life the incidence is about 230 cases per million in the U.S., with the most common being neuroblastoma.[93]

In the developed world, one in three people will develop cancer during their lifetimes. If all cancer patients survived and cancer occurred randomly, the lifetime odds of developing an second primary cancer would be one in nine.[94] However, cancer survivors have an increased risk of developing a second primary cancer, and the odds are about two in nine.[94] About half of these second primaries can be attributed to the normal one-in-nine risk associated with random chance.[94] The increased risk is believed to be primarily due to the same risk factors that produced the first cancer, such as the person's genetic profile, alcohol and tobacco use, obesity, and environmental exposures, and partly due, to the treatment for the first cancer, which typically includes mutagenic chemotherapeutic drugs or radiation.[94] Cancer survivors may also be more likely to comply with recommended screening, and thus may be more likely than average to detect cancers.[94]


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